Jesse Lingard marked his first game as United captain with a low shot from outside the area for his first goal of the season 10 minutes into the game, which was played on an artificial surface.
Dmitri Shomko equalised for Astana in the 55th – the first goal United had conceded in the campaign – just seconds after another teenager Tahith Chong failed to hit an open net from close range at the other end.
Ethan Laird and Dylan Levitt also made their first start in a United team that had an average age of 21.6 years, including 36-year-old goalkeeper Lee Grant.
Porto beat Young Boys 2-1 with a brace from Vincent Aboubakar while English club Wolves drew 3-3 with Braga.
Wolves led 3-1 after goals from Raul Jimenez, Matt Doherty and Adama Traore but conceded to Paulinho (64th) and Fransergio (79th).
However, the point was enough to secure a passage in the next round for Nuno Espirito Santo’s side following Bratislava’s 2-1 defeat to Besiktas.
Krasnodar boosted their hopes of advancing from group C by beating already qualified Basel 1-0.
The Russian side is tied for second on nine points with Getafe, who won 1-0 at Trabzonspor.
Steven Gerrard’s Rangers drew 2-2 at Feyenoord, a result that puts them on top of group G while Roma beat Istanbul Basaksehir 3-0 to jump to second.